Updates in Cardiology
Review

Guide on advanced heart failure

1.

Department of Cardiology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey

2.

Department of Cardiology, Eskişehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Eskişehir, Turkey

3.

Department of Cardiology, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey

4.

Department of Cardiology, Başkent University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey

5.

Department of Cardiology, Mersin University Faculty of Medicine, Mersin, Turkey

6.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey

7.

Department of Cardiology, Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey

8.

Department of Cardiology, Dr. Siyami Ersek Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey

9.

Department of Cardiology, Başkent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

10.

Department of Cardiology, Ankara Yüksek İhtisas Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

11.

Department of Cardiology, Koç University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey

12.

Department of Cardiology, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Medicine, Kırıkkale, Turkey

13.

Department of Cardiology, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, Sivas, Turkey

Updates in Cardiology 2018; 1: 1-79
DOI: 10.5543/ucard.2018.43153
Read: 775 Downloads: 177 Published: 09 April 2022

Advanced heart failure (HF) is defined as the presence of progressive and/or persistent severe signs and symptoms of heart failure despite optimized medical, surgical, and device therapy. Although roughly 5–10% of all HF patients have chronic advanced HF, this group of patients is required more intensive medical treatment, frequent hospitalization, long hospital stay and sophisticated device therapy including noninvasive mechanical ventilation, short and long term mechanical support device or heart transplantation. There are many difficulties in clinical practice in the management of advanced HF patients, including resistant congestion, hyponatremia, worsening renal functions, pulmonary hypertension, frailty, cognitive impairment and comorbidities. Some complicated advanced HF patients are required to be referred to HF clinics for consideration of further therapeutic options. In this paper, commonly encountered problems and management strategies for advanced HF patients in real life clinical practice have been addressed in the form of expert opinions based on the available data in the literature.

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